Download A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including by Arthur Israel Vogel PDF

By Arthur Israel Vogel

The best books there's instructing sensible natural chemistry. The 3rd version of this publication (first released in 1956) is basically of far better use to the pastime chemist, because it doesn't utilize any hideously pricey glassware/apparatus or unique reagents or catalysts.

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Read or Download A Text-book of Practical Organic Chemistry Including Qualitative Organic Analysis. Third Edition PDF

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If the compound is not completely stable but tends to decompose (dissociate) into its components in the liquid state, the melting point will be lowered by the products of decomposition. The shape of the middle branch of the curve will therefore give a rough indication of the stability of the compound. The greater the stability of the compound the sharper is the maximum and, usually, the larger is the central branch CDE of the curve as in Fig. , phenol and picric acid). A flat maximum and a small CDE curve indicate considerable decomposition of the addition compound into its components as in Fig.

P. p. p. p. 131° 1,14. System in which the two components form a compound possessing a congruent melting point. This system, which occurs less frequently than that of Section 1,12, is of considerable interest. The equilibrium diagram depicted in Fig. , capable of existing as a solid compound in equilibrium with a liquid of the same composition. Point A is the melting point of benzophenone (47 -7°) and B that of diphenylamine (52-8°). When diphenylamine is added to benzophenone, the freezing point is lowered along the curve AC.

Such a change has not been observed nor is it theoretically possible. 1,11. Effect of impurities upon the melting point. Let us take a specific example and examine the effect of the addition of a small quantity of naphthalene to an equilibrium mixture of pure solid and liquid a-naphthol at the temperature of the true melting point (95-5°) at atmospheric pressure. The naphthalene will dissolve in the liquid a-naphthol and, according to Raoult's law, the vapour pressure of I c, the latter will be reduced.

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