Download Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 182 by Peter W. Hawkes PDF

By Peter W. Hawkes

Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This sequence positive factors prolonged articles at the physics of electron units (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at low and high energies, microlithography, snapshot technological know-how and electronic photo processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing tools utilized in some of these domains.

  • Contributions from top experts
  • Informs and updates on the entire most recent advancements within the field

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Extra resources for Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics, Volume 182

Sample text

Bar equals 100 nm. (a) TS-TEM of a HIV 1–producing cell culture with three morphologically and functionally immature virions (“i”) and a number of fully matured virions (“m”; diameter of 120–130 nm, membrane-bound with a cone-shaped core; hg # Z16169). Helmut Ruska (1908–1973) 47 H. et al. 1939), an idea supporteddstrongly and wronglydalso by the work on poliovirus morphology (Gard 1943a,b; Ruska, H. 1943b; Tiselius & Gard 1942; Melnick 1944; Figure 16). The considerably larger brick-shaped poxviruses initially posed a challenge of how and where to group themdamong viruses or among bacteria?

For example, how “clean” did the sample have to be on the support film, and could bacteria from the air adsorb to the film and contaminate the specimen? These were significant problems. Repeat experiments with 100 control support films, however, did not demonstrate any contamination. Another message was that more detail was visible on the photographic plate than the observer’s eye could make out directly on the phosphorescent viewing screen (Piekarski & Ruska 1939a, b). In “Die Bedeutung der Elektronenmikroskopie f€ ur die Virusforschung” (“The significance of Electron Microscopy in Virus Research”) Helmut Ruska, Bodo von Borries, and Ernst Ruska included more details of image Helmut Ruska (1908–1973) 31 formation and the design of the new instrument.

Orthopoxviruses measure 200 Â 250 Â 350 nm in size and are among the largest viruses. They were prepared directly from vesicular lesions or from the smallpox vaccine. Virus particles appeared roughly rectangular, with rounded corners, and identical in size, but the images still lacked any visible fine structure. To choose the relatively big poxviruses to study was sensible: it guaranteed a demonstrable success while at the same time posing a technical challenge to this early instrument (Figure 11).

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