By Steven McMullen (auth.)
This booklet explores the commercial associations that be certain the character of animal lives as systematically exploited gadgets traded in a marketplace financial system. It examines human roles and selection within the method, together with the commercial common sense of agriculture, experimentation, and animal possession, and analyses the marginalization of moral motion within the monetary system.
Animals and the Economy demonstrates that specific shoppers and farmers are frequently left with few actually animal-friendly offerings. moral members within the economic system needs to both face down an array of institutional limitations, or go out mainstream markets solely. This ebook argues that those concerns aren't invaluable parts of a industry procedure, and evaluates a couple of coverage adjustments that can increase the lives of animals within the context of a marketplace economy.
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Extra info for Animals and the Economy
This norm, in turn, has created a convention of anthropocentrism that may not be the result of a conscious choice on the part of individual scholars. Second, economic institutions in industrialized countries are generally anthropocentric. Property laws give humans complete control over animals, and government agencies that deal with animals generally do so for the benefit of human populations. If market outcomes reflect well the preferences of those with economic resources, and economic institutions give power only to humans, then economic theories will only reflect the actual economy if they mirror these biases.
Moreover, the law is a way of recognizing that dogs and/or humans have non-economic interests that are violated by the practice. 22 In short, the animals whose lives are more visible, and who enjoy a more favorable historical relationship with humans, fare well, while animals that have traditionally been food or “pests” fare less well. This inconsistency across species is reasonable if the laws are primarily anthropocentric—if they are based on the harm to humans from animal suffering. Such inconsistencies are not compatible with the most common theories of animal ethics, which ground animal worth in the animal, and not in human preferences.
In order to use the discipline of economics to evaluate different consumer choices or food system possibilities, we need to appreciate the true cost of choosing consumer animal products. In fact, any economic attempt to weigh animal welfare must take into account two propositions. First, any human ownership and care of animals will usually displace a similar number of free-living animals, and second, it is usually in animals’ interests to be free-living in a suitable natural environment. I will explain and defend each proposition in turn, and then discuss the implications.