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By Dr. med. Ernst Stein (auth.)

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Extra info for Anorectal and Colon Diseases: Textbook and Color Atlas of Proctology

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For example, the concending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Simulta- traction strength of the external anal sphincter or neously, both anal sphincters and the striated mus- puborectalis muscle can be shown. Required for cle of the pelvic floor relax. Through the coopera- this approach are the presence of intact sphincter 16 Physiology and Pathophysiology of Anorectal Function muscles and the patient's ability to sense distention in the rectum . Often, surgical repair of essential anatomic structures is combined with postoperative training to restore and improve the physiological function of the closure mechanism.

Wolff BG, Culp CE (1998) The Whitehead hemorrhoidectomy. Dis Colon Rectum 31: 587-590 51. Wong WD, Jensen LL, Bartolo DC, Rothenberger DA (1996) Artificial anal sphincter. Dis Colon Rectum 39: 1345-1351 52. Young CJ, Mathur MN, Eyers AA, Solomon MJ (1998) Successful overlapping anal sphincter repair. Relationship to patient age, neuropathy, and colostomy forma tion. Dis Colon Rectum 41: 344-349 The Proctologic Examination Examination Positions 19 Disinfection and Sterilization 20 Disinfection 2 1 Sterilization 24 Disinfection and Sterilization of Instruments 25 Methods of Evaluation 27 History 27 Physical Examination 28 Digital Examination 29 Speculum Examination 30 Proctoscopy and Anoscopy 31 Rigid Rectosigmoidoscopy 33 Flexible Rectosigmoidoscopy 37 Colonoscopy 38 Imaging Studies 4 1 Sonography 46 Anorectal Manometry and Electromyography 47 Mycological and Bacteriological Evaluation 50 Allergological Testing Methods 59 Cancer Prevention 64 Examination Positions Positioning of the patient is of crucial importance for a comfortable and complete proctologic examination.

One major disadvantage is that they are flammable and can also be explosive. A major advantage is that they are effective after 30-60 s. This makes them ideal for hand and skin disinfection. For prophylaxis against hepatitis B virus and HIV, alcoholic solutions (such as Primasept M, Spitaderm) are recommended [8). Glucoprotamines. Glucoprotamines are a suitable alternative to aldehydes for treating surfaces. They are effective against bacteria, including mycobacteria, fungi, hepatitis B virus, and HIV.

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