By Blake D. Dutton
Among crucial, yet often missed, figures within the historical past of debates over skepticism is Augustine of Hippo (354–430 CE). His early discussion, Against the Academics, including significant fabric from his different writings, constitutes a sustained try and reply to the culture of skepticism with which he used to be conventional. This was once the culture of educational skepticism, which had its domestic in Plato's Academy and used to be transmitted to the Roman global during the writings of Cicero (106–43 BCE). Augustine and educational Skepticism is the 1st entire therapy of Augustine’s critique of educational skepticism. In transparent and obtainable prose, Blake D. Dutton offers that critique as a major paintings of philosophy and engages with it accurately as such.
While Dutton offers an intensive evaluation of educational skepticism and Augustine’s stumble upon with it, his basic quandary is to articulate and assessment Augustine’s technique to discredit educational skepticism as a philosophical perform and vindicate the potential of wisdom opposed to the educational denial of that threat. In doing so, he sheds substantial mild on Augustine’s perspectives on philosophical inquiry and the purchase of knowledge.
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Extra info for Augustine and Academic Skepticism: A Philosophical Study
1) He says much the same in Enchiridion: I composed Against the Academics at the beginning of my conversion so that the things the Academics said in opposition [to the wise man giving his approval to anything] would not be an obstacle to us at the entrance [to the Christian life]. At any rate, despair of finding truth, which their arguments seem to strengthen, had to be removed. (Ench. 20) If we go back to Against the Academics, we see that Augustine considered his efforts in this direction to have been a success: I give you the whole of what I have proposed in brief.
To his mind, despair is fundamentally incompatible with the Christian life to which he had committed himself. That life, he never stopped believing, is one of hope that is grounded in faith. All of this is of enormous importance if we are to understand why Augustine was exercised by Academic skepticism to the point that he felt the need to take up his pen against it so soon after his conversion. Although reflection on Academic arguments may not have been what caused him to despair of finding truth, such reflection had threatened to harden him in that despair and nearly derailed him in his search.
This, however, would be surprising. As we have already seen, the Academics saw themselves as having revived the practice of Socratic inquiry within the Academy, and that practice, as anyone familiar with Socrates knows, was deeply motivated by ethical concerns. In fact, it was the very manifestation of a certain ideal of the good life to which Socrates both adhered in his own person and beckoned his fellow Athenians. On this, see the discussion in Cooper 2012, 276–304; Bett 2010; and Nussbaum 1994, 280–315.