Download Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease: A Field and by Illaria Capua, Dennis J. Alexander PDF

By Illaria Capua, Dennis J. Alexander

Avian Influenza (AI) and Newcastle ailment (ND) are devastating illnesses of chicken, which reason losses to the chook and impact the liveability of rural groups around the globe. Following the H5N1 epidemic they look like endemic at the least in Asia, jap Europe, the center East and Africa. rather in case of AI outbreaks it truly is crucial that an infection is clinically determined speedily and that isolates are made to be had to the foreign medical community.

Currently, numerous businesses together with OIE, FAO and the EC have organised education classes in affected components. besides the fact that, usually those classes don't disguise all elements of AI/ND analysis yet merely yes facets. This ends up in fragmented parts of data and within the software of other diagnostic protocols in numerous elements of the world.

The goal of this booklet is to supply a complete method of AI prognosis starting from the medical parts that are meant to set off a suspicion within the box, to the publish mortem approach, number of samples, processing/ cargo of specimens, virological, serological and molecular analysis and instructions for notification.

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Extra resources for Avian Influenza and Newcastle Disease: A Field and Laboratory Manual

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2003) generated a range of viruses with substituted amino acids at the F0 cleavage site. They concluded that virulence required F at position 117, R at 116, K or R at 115 and R not K at 113. Interestingly, all their generated mutants reverted to the virulent motifs 112RRQRR*F117 or 112RRQKR*F117 after a single passage in chicks. Although it appears that the amino acid sequence of the F0 protein cleavage site is the primary influence on real or potential virulence of NDVs, it should be borne in mind that other factors associated with other virus genes and proteins may cause variations in virulence.

Recent studies on the genome of the H1N1 “Spanish” influenza virus, which affected human beings at the beginning of the 20th century, have resulted in the speculation that this virus was entirely of avian origin and not generated by reassortment (Taubenberger 2005). Thus, a virus containing all eight segments of avian origin was able to establish itself in the human population and cause many more deaths than World War I. Sequencing of genes of this and other viruses that have infected humans directly from an avian source has highlighted mutations that are a result of or progressive adaptation to the human host.

Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(5):1356-1361 Gething MJ, Bye J, Skehel J, Waterfield M (1980) Cloning and DNA sequence of double-stranded copies of haemagglutinin genes from H2 and H3 strains elucidates antigenic shift and drift in human influenza virus. Nature 287(5780):301-306 Glass SE, Naqi SA, Grumbles LC (1981) Isolation of avian influenza virus in Texas. Avian Dis 25(2):545-549 Guan Y, Shortridge KF, Krauss S et al (1996) Emergence of avian H1N1 influenza viruses in pigs in China. J Virol 70(11):8041-8046 15 Guo Y, Wang M, Kawaoka Y et al (1992) Characterization of a new avian-like influenza A virus from horses in China.

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