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By Peter Ingram, John D. Shelburne, Victor L. Roggli, Ann LeFurgey

Biomedical functions of Microprobe research is a mixture reference/laboratory handbook for using microprobe research in either scientific diagnostic and study settings. also referred to as microchemical microscopy, microprobe research makes use of high-energy bombardment of cells and tissue, together with excessive answer EM or confocal microscopy to supply a profile of the ion, steel, and mineral concentrations Read more...

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All 28 P. INGRAM ET AL. FIGURE 18. Graph illustrating relationship between overvoltage and intensities of characteristic peak to background ratio, peak, and continuum in thin sections (after Marshall45). EDX electronics essentially count and sort pulses. Conventional electronics can only handle pulses at a certain rate and this rate is rather low (Ͻ3000 counts/sec). However, most commercially available EDX systems are sold for a wide variety of uses, which has to include acceptance of very high count rates.

In the case of thick sections (Ͼ5 lm) or bulk specimens the situation is somewhat more complex because of the multiple interactions of the electron beam with the sample in order to generate the X rays. The intensity of any peak is not only dependent on the accelerating voltage, but also on the atomic number (Z) of the material under question, matrix absorption (A) effects, and PRINCIPLES AND INSTRUMENTATION 31 _ourescence (F) of neighboring regions by particles of interest. The so-called “ZAF” corrections usually have to be applied to bulk specimens for meaningful quantitative data to be obtained.

300. (C) Backscatter electron image (sensitive mainly to atomic number). Darker areas (arrows) show the presence of a material of higher average atomic number than the surrounding tissue matrix. ϫ 300. (D) Conventional secondary electron image. ϫ 1500. (E) Backscatter electron image. ϫ 1500. (F) Silicon X-ray map. ϫ 1500. (G) Magnesium X-ray map. ϫ 1500. (H) Continuum X-ray map. ϫ 1500. 740 KeV). 25 PRINCIPLES AND INSTRUMENTATION E H I F G FIGURE 14. (Continued) 26 P. INGRAM ET AL. FIGURE 15.

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