The acclaim for the Boiler Operators Han~ook has caused the problem of a revised version. except a comparatively small variety of advancements, essen tially linked to stable gasoline firing equipment utilizing the fluidised mattress process, no radical adjustments have happened because the first version of the instruction manual used to be issued in 1969. In revising a piece of this type there's a nice temptation to put out of your mind practices which are now much less universal within the united kingdom. In view of the large strain on international strength assets, even though, the chapters dealing in tools of hand-firing were retained within the wish that they're of worth to these within the much less constructed countries the place power difficulties are infinitely more than ours. excessive combustion depth boilers, generally called package deal Boilers, of the Shell building layout, have now a lot better steam output than their predecessors and the necessity for prime degrees of upkeep and working talents stay as crucial as while this crew of boilers first seemed out there. additionally the normal of water remedy required is maybe larger than the Operator has been conversant in. The healthiness and defense at paintings Act re-emphasised the continuing want for adherence to the rules that ascertain a strain vessel be maintained in a secure continually. for this reason the revised variation of the Boiler Operators instruction manual has en larged its sections on safeguard and the fresh Air Act.
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Additional resources for Boiler Operators Handbook
A layer of scale on the metal surfaces of the boiler acts as an insulator and will reduce the rate at which heat is transferred from the hot zones to the water. The conductivity of a calcium sulphate scale is about one hundredth that of steel! A layer of scale as thick as the wall of a boiler tube will result in a resistance to heat flow considerably higher than the bare tube. In practice, taking into account the film resistance on the water and gas-side, the effect of such a scale would be to lower heat transfer by some 20%.
For every 7°C increase in feed-water temperature the boiler fuel consumption is reduced by 1%. 0% fuel saving for every 20°C rise in air temperature. 41 FEEDWATER ECONOMISERS The greatest loss of heat from a boiler is that carried away by the flue gases to the chimney. One way of recovering and using this heat is to install a feedwater econorniser, this being a chamber in which the hot flue gases pass over a nest of tubes through which the boiler feed water circulates. Although the econorniser is part of the boiler plant, it has its own safety provisions.
Total loss Thennal Efficiency = 100 -heat losses BEAT LOST IN FLUE GASES This should be regarded as the greatest single heat thief in the operation of boiler plant. To some extent this has already been discussed in Chapter 2 where the influence of excess air and its relativity to COa% or free oxygen % in the flue gases was defined. One important factor linked with excess air was not discussed at that stage, namely flue gas temperature. Before discussing the effect of varying temperature on flue gas loss it is desirable to see the effect of varying COa at a fixed temperature on such a loss.