Download Captive Audience: The Telecom Industry and Monopoly Power in by Susan P. Crawford PDF

By Susan P. Crawford

Ten years in the past, the U.S. stood on the vanguard of the net revolution. With many of the quickest speeds and lowest costs on this planet for high-speed web access, the country was once poised to be the worldwide chief within the new knowledge-based economic climate. this day that international aggressive virtue has all yet vanished because of a chain of presidency judgements and ensuing monopolies that experience allowed dozens of nations, together with Japan and South Korea, to move us in either velocity and value of broadband. This regular slide backward not just deprives shoppers of important companies wanted in a aggressive employment and company market—it additionally threatens the commercial way forward for the nation.

This vital ebook through major telecommunications coverage professional Susan Crawford explores why american citizens at the moment are paying even more yet getting less in terms of high-speed web entry. utilizing the 2011 merger among Comcast and NBC common as a lens, Crawford examines how we've got created the most important monopoly because the breakup of ordinary Oil a century in the past. within the clearest phrases, this publication explores how telecommunications monopolies have affected the day-by-day lives of shoppers and America's worldwide monetary status.

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When the clusterhead switches WLAN module on, it sends a message to base station. After receiving the message, the base station sends data to the clusterhead, which forwards it to sensor nodes by piggybacking it into beacons. 1 Model We estimate the lifetime of the clusterhead in days as follows: Lif etime = Q Eday (1) where – Q is available energy [mAh] – Eday is the total daily energy consumption of the clusterhead [mAh/day]. We estimate the energy consumption of a single transceiver as the sum of the energy consumed during active (sending, receiving) and sleep states.

1 We will not account for the load of data sourced/sensed at a node, because it is an inescapable cost and it is equal to all sensors throughout the network. Routing and Aggregation Strategies for Contour Map Applications 2 39 Contour Map Aggregation Given the limitations of pairwise aggregation, we opt for an aggregation approach which allows, in principle, aggressive n-way (n ≥ 3) aggregation. , without restricting the application of aggregation to within individual “neighborhoods”. To do so we define aggregation applicable to contour maps.

3 Lifetime and Event Delay Trade-Off In order to determine the lifetime of the sensor nodes and of the clusterhead we applied the equations 1 and 5. 4 and WLAN transceivers as shown in table 2. We omitted the energy consumed during startup and shutdown of the transceivers, as it is relatively small in low duty cycle protocols (Figure 5 reveals that the clusterhead consumes plenty of energy in sleep mode). Using the scenario described above, the sensor nodes work for almost two years for a beacon period of 5 seconds, and 3 years for 10 seconds beacon period.

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